Approaches to Implementing Solid Waste Recycling Facilities
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In turn, the regulative frame is related to the political will of the national or local government, which is formally achieved with instruments, such as development plans and public policy documents. In the national regulatory frame, a Policy for Integrated Waste Management places recovery and valorization as a primary strategy for managing generated wastes Minambiente, However, in documents as National Development Plans DNP, , , a greater emphasis on the regional schemes of transfer and final disposition has been observed in the last two four-year presidential periods.
Furthermore, in national regulations for Solid Waste Management, as the Act , Mindesarrollo, , an obligation to analyze recovery viability is established only for municipalities with over 8, users; this can be interpreted as a discouraging fact for implementing material recovery from municipal solid waste in small municipalities.
On the other hand, a political will is present, that although, it is not formally explicit in some cases, it keeps a relation with the priorities or political commitments established by governing bodies or leaders.
This affects fundamental aspects such as stability of the government employees of solid waste management organizations and the continuity of local government policies. As stated by Szirmai , and cited by Schoot Uiterkamp et al. In this study, it is defined as contextualized research and conceptual development.
This statement becomes important because it is a key strategy in solid waste management element, such as recovery, which is a recently applied option in Colombia; its establishment was not supported by research experiences to provide the technological adjustment to local conditions Marmolejo et al. In addition, it is basic to keep a continuous business management strengthening, and to adjust it to changeable market conditions, and to a changeable regulatory frame.
As shown in Figure 3 , research and development encouragement can positively change the three mentioned elements. Figure 4 presents users' awareness cycle. In northern Valle del Cauca, continuity and diversity in awareness activities have showed to be basic elements to encourage users' participation, SWMFs recognition, and mainly to achieve the solid waste source separation.
- COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT!
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Users' participation is reflected in solid waste handling practices, payment of charges for solid waste management services, and finally their commitment to activities related to SWMFs Marmolejo et al. They represent resources that support facility functioning. Additionally, an encouraging element for users is to know the sanitary and environmental benefits of local recovery, as well as its impact on reducing waste collection, transport, and final disposal costs.
This cost reduction should reduce users' charges. On the other hand, although source separation favors selective collection, and thus, the separation process in SWMF; in some instances, an increase of informal waste pickers was observed. They pick up recoverable materials before the collector vehicle did, making it necessary to establish conciliation measures among service operators, users and waste pickers. Contextualized technological development simplifies the projection of technological options adapted to a local reality, and as shown in Figure 5 , it affects other key elements, such as selective collection and SWMF operation and maintenance.
For SWMFs, a technological development must include the conceptual and technological developments necessary i to simplify the estimation of the quantities and characteristics of raw materials and products; ii to optimize separating, transforming and conditioning processes; as well as iii to develop a facility' information system adapted to local conditions.
Technology should be adapted to the local context, which in northern Valle del Cauca it is characterized by municipalities with a population below 20, inhabitants, farming activities, low income, elementary level education and high levels of unemployment. Optimizing a collection scheme and using technologies adapted to context will increase quality and quantity of the recovered material in SWMFs, which, in turn, will reduce solid waste final disposal requirements, and its by-product management.
Legal recognition of solid waste management responsible organization has been a successful element for solid waste management. At the same time, this strengthens the managerial functions of solid waste management companies or organizations administration, marketing, financing, operation and maintenance, planning and management, and information support MAVDT, As shown in Figure 6 , this strengthening positively affects aspects such as operators' training and workers' equipment availability, SWMF operation and maintenance, and increases waste service incomes. In a similar way, using rule laws simplified by the legalization of solid waste management companies or organizations, has allowed to establish agreements among the waste-collecting company, informal waste pickers, and traders.
As shown in Figure 7 , the local and regional markets have the capacity to demand the products from SWMFs Victoria et al. As stated ahead, material recovery will reduce SMW's final disposal requirements, its subsequent need of a larger fill area, and gases and leachate treatment, which represents a decrease in the resources needed for final disposal Norbu et al. The combined application of an Integrated Sustainable Waste Management approach and the Systemic Dynamics Analysis showed that the synergy among stakeholders, that is, governing bodies, users, solid waste management service, and academic and research sectors, is basic for SWMFs sustainability.
Governing bodies are in charge of formulating and applying the normative and legal frame that must support politically, administratively and financially SWMFs functioning. Raw material quantity and quality, and financial resources needed for its functioning have a high dependence on users' awareness. Solid waste management responsible organization is in charge of implementing a managerial scheme that besides optimizing service operations and maintenance, can establish cooperation agreements with users and with potential competitors as informal waste pickers; in addition, it can also project and position products in markets.
Academic and research sectors are in charge of generating conceptual and technological developments adapted to context, and then, they must be translated to human talent qualification, who are in charge of designing, operating, maintaining and administrating SWMFs. Under current circumstances, it is unlikely that SWMFs recovery can be a sustainable option in Colombia, due to the coexistence of aspects such as: the prioritization of final disposal established by means of national regulations laws, a low separation in source and selective collection of waste, the limited research and conceptual development on aspects related to SWMFs recovery, as well as the scarce personnel trained in this subject.
The author thanks Universidad del Valle for its support given to the development of his doctoral reserch project.
4 Different Stages of Recycling
Castellanos, O. Chaerul, M. A system dynamics approach for hospital waste management. Waste Management , 28 2 , Ley 11, julio, Ley 27, Diciembre, Diario Oficial.
Sustainable Practices in Waste Management
Decreto 19 de septiembre, Por el cual se reglamenta parcialmente la Ley de en materia presupuestal y se dictan otras disposiciones. UNEP is assisting member countries and their cities to develop an ISWM plan covering all the waste generating sectors within a specific geographical or administrative area such as a city or municipality.
This umbrella approach is useful to generate sufficient volumes of recycling materials required to make recycling industries feasible. This is also helpful for efficient reallocation of resources for SWM such as collection vehicles, transfer stations, treatment plants, and disposal sites. These experiences could be useful for other countries to develop and implement ISWM to achieve improved public health, better environmental protection, and resource conservation and resource recovery.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide. Integrated solid waste management based on the 3R approach. Original Article First Online: 18 April To address the public's expectations of appropriate waste management practises, the Government of Nova Scotia will do the following:. The actions listed above will result in a 75 percent reduction in the number of sites for the disposal of municipal solid waste in Nova Scotia.
Consistent with the principle of shared responsibility, each of us, as individuals, must strive to limit the amount of waste we generate. To provide Nova Scotians with the information and encouragement necessary to reduce, reuse, recycle and compost effectively, educational materials must be developed and made readily accessible. Many of these materials will need to be developed at the local or regional level and designed specifically to encourage full participation in multi-diversion programs, including curbside and household hazardous waste collection. In recognition of this, each regional plan will include a communications and education strategy.
The Resource Recovery Fund will provide financial assistance to municipalities to develop educational materials.
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Beyond providing individual Nova Scotians with information on local waste diversion programs, the RRF will develop an overall communications strategy designed to:. Presented with today's challenges for solid waste management, Nova Scotia is determined to meet the target of 50 percent waste diversion by the year and will ensure that appropriate environmental guidelines for waste disposal are fully implemented across the Province within ten years.
The cost effective achievement of these goals will require the cooperation and commitment of all stakeholders, strong government leadership and coordinated regional planning. While the overall costs of waste management will increase, the benefits of improved waste management will far outweigh these costs.sitemubagse.cf
Part 4: Particular approaches to waste management — Office of the Auditor-General New Zealand
In addition, significant new opportunities for economic development and job creation will result from the implementation of this Strategy. Government is committed to ensuring that this Strategy keeps pace with emerging recycling technologies and public expectations for improved waste management by conducting a comprehensive review of the Strategy in the year Updated: Dec Government of Nova Scotia novascotia.
Milk containers will be recycled through province-wide collection programs. The number of active landfills will be reduced by approximately 75 percent. Currently, there are 40 active landfills in the Province. All landfills will have to meet the Department of the Environment's new stricter guidelines to prevent leachate and other problems associated with the current variety. In order to ensure that cost increases are minimized, municipal units will be encouraged to cooperate on a regional scale. It is recommended seven solid waste resource management regions be established.
The Department of the Environment estimates the Strategy will cost each Nova Scotian an additional 50 cents a week. Solid waste resources will be used to create new employment in Nova Scotia through the production of value-added goods. The Department of the Environment and the Resource Recovery Fund are working on plans to use scrap tires as the feedstock for a reprocessing plant.
Government notifies new solid waste management rules
Other innovative plans include composting and Nova Scotia-based reprocessing of plastics, corrugated cardboard, disposable diapers and aseptic containers, such as juice packs. The Strategy will create approximately jobs in recycling, collection and environmental industries. These jobs will be primarily in the private sector. The Resource Recovery Fund will be a private sector, industry driven, non-profit organization. It will be charged with the marketing of recyclable materials in order to ensure Nova Scotia's environmental industries have a critical mass of feedstock from domestic sources.
These materials will be used to establish industries based on the processing of recyclables. The Strategy will involve diversion of 60 to 70 percent of household hazardous waste from disposal facilities. The innovative environmental technologies developed for use in Nova Scotia will be marketed to other jurisdictions that are facing the same challenges. For the purposes of this Strategy, the use of construction and demolition waste as fill for the rehabilitation of disturbed sites or as a substitute for virgin materials in road building is diversion.
For the purposes of this Strategy, incineration with or without energy recovery is not diversion. A number of municipal units have imposed bans on the disposal of used oil, waste paint and ethylene glycol. The Strategy will make these bans province-wide. Certain industry sectors are forecasting higher estimates for job creation. The cost estimates for waste management are average costs for Nova Scotia.